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Welcome to my blog. Here I share my successes and failures along my journey to becoming an anthropologist. My most prominent interest anthropologically are the new approaches to handing food security/healthy eating in the US, particularly in urban "food deserts". I enjoy the Anthropology of Tourism as well; combining food and tourism has scholarly promise. My other interests which have converted into anthropological hobbies of sorts include converts to Islam, diaspora of Muslims, and MENA in general. I also have some interest in historical archaeology.

I welcome comments, discussion and even respectful debating. I will however keep discussions to a respectable level. I reserve the right to ban anyone from this forum.

Saturday, May 1, 2010

Taking a Toll On Tourism: Lake Apopka-Former Bass Paradise to Environmental Nightmare-Part 2





This one will be less pictures. I am getting lazy!! Sorry!:-) I am not certain people read my blog anyhow.




Brief Economic History of West Orange County, Florida

West Orange County is a former home to citrus groves and Lake Apopka, and as FOLO describes on its website, a “plentiful and productive lake” (Friends of Lake Apopka 2010:1). The area includes Winter Garden, Oakland, Apopka, Ocoee, and Zellwood, among others. The area had pioneers in the area of West Orange County prior to the Civil War with “many relocating to what is now Winter Garden” which is formerly known as Beulah (The Winter Garden Historical Foundation 1997:1). Most of the towns surrounding the lake have been incorporated around the same time. For example, the town of Apopka was “chartered as a town in 1882” (Shofner 1982: iii), Oakland was incorporated as a town in 1887 (Bacon 1974:31), and Winter Garden was incorporated in 1903 (TWGHF 1997:1).

Agriculture in Northwest Orange County


Early in the history of the area, prior to the twentieth century, pioneers exploited the land agriculturally (The Winter Garden Heritage Foundation 1997:1). In Oakland, citrus groves “which have flourished and formed the basis for the agricultural empire” mainly due to the industrious nature of the pioneers, of whom James Gamble Speer was one of (Bacon 1974: vii). Citrus was not the only crop grown close to Lake Apopka. Corn, beans, cotton, and sugar cane were also successful (Bacon 1974:4). According to Bacon,” its natural beauty high above Lake Apopka gave it an attractiveness held by no other spot in Florida” (Bacon 1974:4). Other towns in West Orange County such as Winter Garden and Apopka had similar economic success stories in agriculture (Shofner 1982:11). According to Shofner, “almost all of the early settlers planted at least a few citrus trees and several had sizable groves” (Shofner 1982:82).









The success continued into the twentieth century as catfish from Lake Apopka became a “cash crop” (The Winter Garden Heritage Foundation 1997: 13). Citrus also continued to be highly successful in the region and a company called ‘Winter Garden Citrus Products Co-Op’ ran a processing plant for canned orange juice, which proved to be of high demand during World War II. Following the war, frozen orange juice concentrate was developed by the same company for the national market (The Winter Garden Heritage Foundation 1997:39). Zellwood was also an area of heavy growth in agriculture. By 1950, the town had become “the number one shipping point for perishable crops on the Seaboard Air Line Railway” (Mormino 2005:211). Zellwood also has been famous for its sweet corn and produced “up to three harvests of…corn…a year” (Mormino 2005:211) and by the 1980’s, the corn shipped around the country from Zellwood totaled $71.4 million (Mormino 2005:211). Also, a report released by the Florida Department of Agriculture from 1930 mentions the agricultural success of the county; it mentions the poultry farms in Apopka and how the local hatchery “operates a 47,000 egg incubator” (Florida Department of Agriculture 1930:43).


The above shows Lake Apopka filled with toxins!


Agriculture, Pollution, and Lake Apopka



Lake Apopka, located in the northeast corner of Orange County, is part of the Harris Chain of Lakes located in Lake County which form into the Ocklawaha River and finally joins up with the St. John’s River (Riley 2005:281). This lake has been considered “one of the state’s most polluted” (Marino 1994:102). Human manipulation of Lake Apopka by white settlers began in 1880 through the building of the Apopka-Beauclair Canal by the Apopka Canal Company to “create a waterway for navigation and agricultural use” (Friends of Lake Apopka 2010:1). In 1941, a levee was built by the Zellwood Drainage and Water Control District (ZDWCD) to create ‘muck farms’. That is, they drained 20,000 acres of Lake Apopka filtering marshes and used the soil as farmland (Friends of Lake Apopka 2010:1).



The damage to the lake began when the citrus plants in Winter Garden began discharging their pesticide waste and sewage, into the lake during the 1920’s; a time period of increased economic growth (Riley 2005:281-82). At the same time, human waste was being discharged into the lake by the Winter Garden Pollution Control Facility; a sewage plant was built (Friends of Lake Apopka 2010:2). The second major alteration to the lake occurred in 1942 when “DDT and other pesticides…entered the lake as a result of extensive agricultural activity surrounding the lake” (Semenza 1997:1030). Finally, according to Semenza, between 1957-1981, a manufacturing plant (Tower Chemical) about 1.5 miles from Lake Apopka, that “both manufactured and stored both chlorinated and organophosphate insecticides” discharged the waste into a pond that lacked a lining (Semenza 1997:1030). In 1980, during a very heavy rain, the pond overflowed into “a marsh that drains into Lake Apopka” (Semenza 1997:1030).

Picture of 'muck' farming




So, over time, particularly from 1942 on, algae blooms began to occur in the lake due to “high nutrient loading” (Friends of Lake Apopka 2010:2). Algae blooms severely limit the oxygen in the aquatic environment by blocking sunlight and preventing growth of aquatic plants already present in the water (Friends of Lake Apopka 2010:1).




Deterioration of game fish



Although Lake Apopka is an ecosystem with living chains that have been severely affected by the pollution, I will concentrate on the reduction of game fish for the purposes of this paper. In 1947, “game fish make up 35% of the fish population, shad 20% by weight” (Friends of Lake Apopka 2010:2). Shad is not considered a game fish. In 1950, there was a documented increase in game fish in the lake; listed at being 60% of the fish population (Friends of Lake Apopka 2010:3). However, according to the FOLA, the game fish begin to reduce in quality and quantity in 1952 (Friends of Lake Apopka 2010:3). In 1957, shad made up 82% of the fish population and by 1962, Friends of Lake Apopka asserts that fish deaths became “widespread” (Friends of Lake Apopka 2010:3). In 1965, DDT levels in catfish were found to exceed legal limits so harvesting was terminated at this time (Friends of Lake Apopka 2010:3). In 1973, “bass production” deteriorated and in 1977, researchers at the University of Florida “say the lake is not ‘getting any dirtier’ after a half-century of deterioration” (Friends of Lake Apopka 2010:4). Finally, “massive” fish deaths” were recorded in 1981 (Friends of Lake Apopka 2010:5).



Trade and transportation



The area became the center for trade (Shofner 1982: iii) so the need to transport the agricultural products to market in addition to bringing “tourists into Central Florida for its healthful climate and healthful atmosphere”, brought the need for a rail line into the area (Bacon 174:7). In Oakland, the Orange Belt Railroad came into town in 1886 instigated by Peter Demens, who was an immigrant from Russia (Bacon 1974:7, 11). The line originally traveled from Longwood to Lake Apopka while serving the Town of Winter Garden as well (The Winter Garden Heritage Foundation 1997:44). Soon after, Demens was able to expand the line to the area what is now St. Petersburg (although not without financial hardship). The name St. Petersburg came from Peter Demens himself after he unsuccessfully tried to rename the Town of Oakland ‘St. Petersburg’ after the city of his birth in Russia (Bacon 1974:9).





However, the success of the new rail line was short lived due in to the “big freeze” that killed most of the citrus crops and “the Orange Line became almost non-existent” (Bacon 1974:15). A second rail line came into town in 1890 called the Tavares and Gulf (“T &G”) which eventually was taken over by the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad Company (Bacon 1974:15). In Apopka, the town utilized the rail lines in Oakland (Orange Belt Railroad) until 1887. From there, the Florida Railway and Navigation Company arrived to the area as did the Tavares, Orlando, and Atlantic (TO&A) which eventually “became part of the Seaboard Airline Railroad” (see figure 2) (Shofner 1982:72).



Fishing Tourism

History of fishing tourism in Northwest Orange County




If you were a tourist to the Northwest Orange County area in the early twentieth century, you may have most likely would have traveled in by train. Lake Apopka, once Florida’s second largest lake and was, according to many sources, a viable game fishing tourist destination for many around the country (Bacon 1974:39). For example, twenty nine fish camps once lined the shores of this vibrant lake (Friends of Lake Apopka timeline 2010:1). In Apopka for example, “the winter of 1919-1920 brought numerous visitors” and they “experienced a modest increase in tourism” following WWI (Shofner 1982:175). In Winter Garden, the city’s “first brick hotel”, The Shelby was built in 1915 (Orlando Business Journal 2003: n.p.).
Looking in a copy of a American Automobile Association’s (AAA)‘Southeastern Tour book’ from the year of 1935, one would see Lake Apopka listed as the “world’s most dependable lake” for catching large-mouth black bass fish (American Automobile Association 1935:48). Likewise, if you were a tourist to the Orlando area in the early 1950’s, you may have picked up a copy of ‘The Orlando, Winter Park, and Central Florida Attraction’ guide and on both pages 10 and 12, you as the visitor would be introduced to Lake Apopka as the first lake listed and saying that it is “famous for black bass” (The Orlando, Winter Park, and Central Florida Attraction guide 1951:10, 12).
Oakland Hotel



In Oakland, located on the south end of Lake Apopka, a hotel called the ‘Oakland Hotel’ was built “in the first decade of the 1900’s” (Bacon 1974:39). One of the advertising brochures for the hotel stated,
“The Oakland Hotel is new and equipped with every device necessary to the comfort of its guests. Large airy rooms, en suite or single, with or without bath, telephones, electric lights, water from a fine artesian well…Transient rates will be 3.00 a day” (Bacon 1974:39)



Like the other hotels in the area I researched, this one was also designed for the tourist who wanted to fish for bass in Lake Apopka. Bacon emphasizes this by mentioning that “the hostelry became a mecca for sportsmen all over the United States, drawn by the excellent bass fishing in the lake” (Bacon 1974:39). In figure 3 and 4, are other advertisements for the hotel and give similar descriptions about this hotel. In figure 3, the advertisement was originally located in an Orange County and Orlando City Directory from 1913, soon after being built. In figure 4, the advertisement was originally in the St. Cloud Tribune from 1920. In figure 5, the reader will see a picture of the hotel as it appeared in 1910 (Bacon 1974:38).




According to Bacon, the hotel was “condemned and was torn down in the 1920” (Bacon 1974:40). The kitchen and dining hall building, once connected to the hotel, is back to being a private residence (Bacon 1974:40). There is some inconsistency in reference to what the hotel was used for after the hotel was no longer in business. In a speech given in 1975, in Oakland by Buck Hull Jr., it was stated by him that in 1931, “A Jacksonville man (whose name has been lost to history) opened a boys school in the old hotel on what is now Tubb St.” (Hull 1975:n.p.). To date, there have been no further references to collaborate that information and this exploration is ongoing.



“Boom” period



During the early part of the 1920’s, the United States was facing enormous economic growth; this time was also known as the “boom” period (The Winter Garden Heritage Foundation 1997:29). The Northwest area of Orange County, Florida was not exempt from this growth. For example, “in 1925, 2500 rail cars of citrus and vegetables were shipped from the city’s busy packing houses” (The Winter Garden Heritage Foundation 1997:29).During this boom period, fishing tourism increased as well. For example, ‘Fishermen’s Paradise’, a fishing camp in Apopka had “attracted national attention to Lake Apopka’s recreational qualities” and started bringing tourists in from Orlando and by 1923, these trips became a daily occurrence (Shofner 1982:188). Hotels also opened during this time. One of the first hotels built was the Wayside Inn in Apopka in 1920.


Edgewater Hotel





The Edgewater Hotel was another one of the popular hotels where anglers stayed during their fishing trip. The Edgewater is located in Winter Garden along the south shore of Lake Apopka on Plant Street. It originally opened in 1927 and according to their website, it “had the distinction of being one of the safest and most technologically advanced in the country” (Edgewater Hotel 2010). In addition, the hotel featured an Otis elevator which is still in working order to this day. The website also states that the clientele were “wealthy business tycoons in the 1920’s” (Edgewater Hotel 2010). The site does point out that “Winter Garden was a destination resort area due to the bass fishing abundance” in Lake Apopka. In 1936, fish cleaning stations, complete with refrigerators, were added on each floor, once local business men decided to lease out the hotel (Edgewater Hotel 2010).



In the 1940’s and beyond, the hotel had been used for a variety of other purposes other than tourism. For example, the hotel was used to house WWII soldiers in the 1940’s. From there, the hotel was used to house school teachers. Finally, in the late 1960’s and early 1970’s, the hotel was utilized for the construction crew who were working on the development of Walt Disney World in Orlando (Edgewater Hotel 2010). Following that, it is uncertain what the hotel was used for. Now, the hotel is currently open as a quaint Bed and Breakfast Style Hotel and has been renovated in the early twenty first century to resemble the early twentieth century style (Edgewater Hotel 2010).




On an occasional basis, the West Orange Times, in Winter Garden printed names and geographic locations of the guests who stayed at the Edgewater Hotel so I accumulated the data and separated the areas into the Southern states, Midwest/Great Lakes region, Northeast states, and finally the Western states. I accumulated two weeks of data from each of the 3 years, representing weeks close (by one week) to one another. The years represented are 1934, 1939, and 1945. The data figures represent the geographic regions of the southern states, Midwest/Great Lakes states, northeastern states, and the western states respective in that order. In 1934 for February 16 (West Orange Times 1934:15) and March 9 (West Orange Times 1934:26), the data set was 60%, 37.5%, 2.5%, and 0%. In 1939, for January 20 (West Orange Times 1939:34) and March 8 (West Orange Times 1939:45), the data set was 58%, 37.5%, 4.5%, and 0%. In 1945 for February 16 (West Orange Times 1945:46) and March 2 (West Orange Times 1945:37), the data set was 61.36%, 38.64, 0%, and 0%.


Trailer City and Tin Can Tourists


The hotels were not the only places where visitors to West Orange County stayed while trying to catch a winning bass. Once the automobile became more affordable to the middle-class, in the early 1920’s, people “left their worries in the North and camped in Florida” (Mormino 2005:265). Initially, according to Mormino, the first trailer campers were “really wooden boxes mounted on trucks or a flatbed pulled by a Model T” (Mormino 2005:265). The people were called “Tin Can Tourists” because “they drove their automobiles to the state, stayed in campgrounds, and ate food from tin cans” (Stronge 2008:89). Stronge asserts that the “Tin Can Tourist was generally from the Midwest part of the United States opposed to the northeast. He states, “tourists from the northeast were often more urban, seemed more likely to travel by train, and seemed to prefer the southeast coast of the state”( Stronge 2008:89).




“Tin Can Tourists” drove to the area and stayed in Trailer City in Winter Garden (A Journey Through Historic Winter Garden 1997:56). In a 1938-1939 advertisement for Trailer City, it talks about all the amenities that the camp is rich in. For instance, it stated that it had “swimming pool, tennis, shuffleboard, horseshoe, croquet courts and auditorium-everything for the trailer tourist convenience and pleasure is here” (Trailer Tourist advertisement 1938/9:n.p.). Another interesting piece of information is the price to rent a space in Trailer City. One could park their camper and stay for $1.50/week (Trailer Tourist advertisement 1938/9:n.p.).




The “Tin Can Tourists” also had their own national organization called “Tin Can Tourists of the World” and had over “36,000 registered members, and thousands who are not registered”(West Orange Times 1936: 25). In the same article, it was stated that the Winter Garden trailer camp is “the nicest place he has seen in Florida for a camp” (West Orange Times 1936:25). Also, in an article dated on March 27, 1936, it asserts, “Winter Garden for the next week or so will be the tin can tourist capital of the world! And that is no mean honor!” (West Orange Times 1936:15). One article in the West Orange Times said, “not economical of mode of life appeals to trailer tourist” and continuing on by saying the trailer tourist is, “mostly men and women who retired from business or professional activities with considerable accumulated money and who prefer the simple life” (West Orange Times 1936:33). When Trailer City ceased to exist in Winter Garden is unknown at this time but is a topic of further research.


Fish camps



No discussion on fishing tourism in the Northwest Orange County area would be complete without discussing the fish camps. Fish camps were places along the river where the angler could stay, purchase lures and bait, and launch their boat. Montrose says that , “they did not feature all the conveniences of modern day living” (Montrose 2005:3). They were “shacks” and “remote, hard to reach locations were preferred” (Montrose 2005:3).


On Lake Apopka, there were initially 29 fish camps along the lake prior to the development of the muck farms (Friends of Lake Apopka 2010). In Apopka, Johnson’s Fish Camp “attracted national attention” according to Shofner (Shofner 1982:188). In a tourist attraction booklet from 1951 concentrating on Orlando, Winter Park and Central Florida, has a listing of fish camps people could frequent on Lake Apopka. (The Orlando, Winter Park and Central Florida Attraction Guide 1951:12). The camps included not only Johnson’s Camp but also The Gap, Sunshine Manor, Killarney, Oakland, Tom’s Camp, and in Lake County, Montverde (The Orlando, Winter Park, and Central Florida Attraction Guide 1951:12).



The pollution in Lake Apopka eventually took its toll. Based upon data from Friends of Lake Apopka, it is in 1952 when the game fish begin to reduce in numbers (Friends of Lake Apopka 2010:3). In the year of 1956, there were 8 less fish camps in operation than before the muck farms began discharging toxins in the lake ( Friends of Lake Apopka 2010:3). In the year 1985, there were no more fish camps in operation on Lake Apopka (Friends of Lake Apopka 2010:5) In one Florida freshwater fishing guide published in 1987, I looked in the section for Orange County and Lake County and Lake Apopka is not mentioned as having fish camps in operation (Branyon 1987:85).


Discussion



My research for this paper derived from a variety of sources. Some of the sources have been incomplete, although research is still ongoing. For instance, the archaeological research at the Oakland Hotel has been omitted from this paper because I thought that by including the archaeological research completed to date, I would not be answering the research question. Although the excavation is complete and the sample in the midden had many interesting artifacts from the early part of the twentieth century, artifact analysis is not complete.



The lack of data regarding the Edgewater Hotel also could be a subject for further research in time. The majority of the scholarly sources I used were written by historians or biologists; I found the subject of fishing tourism to be sorely lacking in the social sciences. Also, in some of the work I sourced, particularly those focusing on tourism in the United States in the twentieth century, Lake Apopka was not mentioned once; at the same time, it was mentioned countless times in literature aimed at the tourists already here (guide books) or history literature with Northwest Orange County as a regional theme. I chose to utilize a fishing guide from 1987 (Branyon) despite the fact the year is two years following the end of my time period because I thought it was further evidence that the lake was not viable for anglers. I was not able to find fishing guides for previous years. All that said, much more work could be completed on this topic but that is beyond the scope of this paper.



Conclusion




Here, I researched the connection between the environmental decline of Lake Apopka to the fishing tourism that is now just a memory. My recent archaeological work in Oakland, Florida brought this subject matter to my attention. I have long been interested in the natural world around me and like many, find it appalling what we as humans do in the name of “improvement”; including some of my own actions. I did not choose this topic because of an inherit passion for fishing. I chose it to expand my knowledge about the consequences of technological development on not only nature but the human beings involved as well. I also chose it to learn more about fishing tourism in general.



In my readings while researching the paper, I could not help but wonder about the vegetable and fruit packers along the lake who had lost their jobs due to the purchase of the muck farms by St. Johns River Water Management due to the Lake Apopka Restoration Act of 1996. For the right person, interested in fishing tourism and environmental health, a more in depth study on this topic could possibly lead to educating future generations.


Works Cited

Bacon, Eve
1974 Oakland: The Early Years. Chuluota: The Mickler House Publishers

Branyon, Max
1987 The Orlando Sentinel Florida Freshwater Fishing Guide. Orlando: Sentinel
Communications Company

Boyd, Lydia and Lynn Pritcher
Brief History of the U.S. Passenger Rail Industry. Duke University Libraries: Digital
Collections. n.p. Last modified January 25, 2008
http://library.duke.edu/digitalcollections/adaccess/rails-history.html
Date accessed March 17, 2010

Clark, Bernal E, Ed.
1930 Florida: Empire of the Sun. Tallahassee: Florida State Hotel Commission.

Duda, Alfred M. and Robert J. Johnson
1984 Lakes Are Losing the Battle in Clean Water Programs. Water Pollution Control
Federation. 56 (7): 815-822

Edgewater Hotel
2010 “Our History”. http://www.historicedgewater.com/history.htm
accessed April 27, 2010

Florida Department of Agriculture. Central Florida report.
1930 Tallahassee: Department of Agriculture

Friends of Lake Apopka, “Lake Apopka Timeline”.
2010 http://www.fola.org/PDFs/LakeApopkaTimeline.pdf. accessed March 13, 2010


Idaho Fish and Game. “Fish Glossary/Definitions”.
2010 http://fishandgame.idaho.gov/fish/glossary/ date accessed, April 18, 2010

Jakle, John A.
1985 The Tourist: Travel in the Twentieth-Century North America.
Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press

Jennings, Gayle
2007 Water-Based Tourism, Sport, Leisure, and Recreation Experiences. In Water-
Based Tourism, Sport, Leisure, and Recreation Experiences. Gayle Jennings ed.
Pp. 1-22. Burlington: Butterworth-Heinemann Publications.


Killion, Les
2007 Sport Fishing and Big Game Fishing. In Water-
Based Tourism, Sport, Leisure, and Recreation Experiences. Gayle Jennings ed.
Pp. 112-127. Burlington: Butterworth-Heinemann Publications.

Montrose, Jack
2003 Tales from a Florida Fish Camp. Sarasota: Pineapple Press, Inc.

Marino, G
1994 Lake Apopka Pollution Hurts Bass Population. Science News Vol. 146 (7): 102

Mormino, Gary R.
2005 Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams: A Social History of Modern Florida.
Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

National Marine Fisheries Service. “Definition of Fisheries Technical Terms”.
http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/techniques/tech_terms.html#pel
accessed, April 18, 2010

Orlando Business Journal.
2003 “Winter Garden Celebrates its 100th Anniversary”,
http://orlando.bizjournals.com/orlando/stories/2003/04/21/focus4.html,
Friday April 18:n.p. accessed April 25, 2010

Riley, Nano
2005 Lake Apopka: From Natural Wonder to Unnatural Disaster. In Paradise Lost?
Jack E. Davis and Raymond Arsenault eds. Pp. 280–293.Gainesville: University of Florida Press

Sandoval-Strausz, A.K.
2007 Hotel: An American History. New Haven: Yale University Press

Semenza, Jan C., with Paige E. Tolbert, Carol H. Rubin, Louis J. Guillette, Jr., Richard J.
Jackson.
1997 Reproductive Toxins and Alligator Abnormalities at Lake Apopka, Florida.
Environmental Health Perspectives 105(10): 1030-1032


Shofner, Jerrell H.
1982 History of Apopka and Northwest Orange County, Florida. Apopka: Apopka
Historical Society


St. John’s River Water Management District.
2010 “Lake Apopka: Water Quality Improvements, North Shore Restoration”.
http://sjr.state.fl.us/publications/pdfs/fs_lapopka.pdf accessed April 13, 2010


Stronge, William B.
2008 The Sunshine Economy: An Economic History of Florida since the Civil War.
Gainesville: University Press of Florida.


The Winter Garden Heritage Foundation
1997 All Aboard! A Journey Through Historic Winter Garden: 1880-1950. Winter
Garden: Winter Garden Heritage Foundation

Thompson, Tommy R.
2003 Florida in American popular magazines. The Florida Historical Quarterly. Vol. 82
(1). Pp. 1-15
Trailer Tourist advertisement
N.d. Oakland Nature Preserve

Walther, Lynette
1990 Apopka. Florida Wildlife, January-February n.p.

Weiss, Thomas
2004 Tourism in America before WWII. Journal of Economic History. Vol. 64 (2). pp.
289-327

West Orange Times Newspaper
1934 Guests at the Edgewater. February 16:26

West Orange Times Newspaper
1934 Many Register at the Edgewater. March 9:15

West Orange Times Newspaper
1936 Past Royal Chief of TCT Visitor at Winter Garden Trailer City. February 25:25

West Orange Times Newspaper
1936 Welcome Tin Canners!. March 27:15

West Orange Times Newspaper
1939 Guests at the Edgewater. January 20:34

West Orange Times Newspaper
1939 Edgewater Guests. March 8:45

West Orange Times Newspaper
1945 Registered at the Edgewater. February 16:45

West Orange Times Newspaper
1945 Guests at the Edgewater . March 2:37

3 comments:

Chiara said...

Well documented and an original topic! I must say I remain surprised by the anthropology of tourism. It really is a different angle on some issues that have been approached in other ways.

Anthrogeek10 said...

Anthropology of tourism is a relatively new field which is growing all the time. I do not necessarly want to specialize in it but it was a fun class.

Thanks for your provate comments and the ones here as always.

Anonymous said...

To me its amazing that the Peykoff family, owners of Niagara water have a permit to remove millions of gallons of pure spring water from the same aquifer that feeds the spring that empties into Lake Apopka on the sw side. 32 years ago we used to go to that spring area and anchor our seaplane there and go swimming in the clean spring water that was coming up. Today (2015) if you go there the water coming up isn't even visible since Niagara water and Peykoff family are basically taking that water and bottling it. How will that ever help Lake Apopka clean up?? Foolish decision bt SJWMD